Cuboid Bone

What is the Cuboid Osseous

The cuboid osseous is one of the seven tarsal bones of the midfoot. Due to its cubic shape, it is referred to as the ‘cuboid’ osseous. It is situated most laterally in the distal row of the tarsus. It secures and sustains the lateral column of the foot.

Where is the Cuboid Positioned

The cuboid osseous is positioned on the lateral aspect of the foot, anterior to the calcaneus, posterior to the fourth and fifth metatarsal, and adjacent to the navicular and lateral cuneiform bones.

Cuboid Osseous

Cuboid Osseous Details

Type  Cube-shaped osseous
Quantity in the human body  2 (1 in each foot)
Articulates with  Calcaneus, navicular, lateral cuneiform, fourth and fifth metatarsal
Cuboid Osseous X Ray


  • Offer stability and support to the lateral column of the foot.
  • Although not directly involved in weight-bearing, it disperses a substantial amount of mechanical force while standing or walking, enhancing the foot’s flexibility.

Structure and Anatomy of the Cuboid Osseous in the Foot

As mentioned, the osseous is roughly cubical, featuring six distinct surfaces: dorsal, plantar, lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior.

Dorsal Surface: It is flat and rough for ligament attachment, directed upwards and laterally.

Plantar Surface: The inferior or plantar surface presents a prominence known as the tuberosity of the cuboid. It also has a deep groove at its front, the peroneal sulcus, running obliquely towards the anterior and medial sides. The peroneus longus tendon passes through this groove and is bounded behind by a prominent ridge to which the long plantar ligament is attached.

Lateral Surface: It is small and presents a deep notch or groove formed by the peroneal sulcus.

Medial Surface: The medial surface is broad and irregularly quadrilateral. It provides two articular sides for articulation with the lateral cuneiform and navicular bones. The medial surface features a large, smooth, oval facet at its middle and upper part, for articulation with the lateral cuneiform. It also bears a smaller facet proximally for articulation with the navicular. The overall surface is rough for the attachment of robust interosseous ligaments.

Anterior Surface: The anterior surface is irregularly triangular, divided into two facets by a vertical ridge. The medial facet is quadrilateral, articulating with the fourth metatarsal. Another facet, facing laterally, is triangular and articulates with the fifth metatarsal. 

Posterior Surface: It is smooth, triangular, and provides a concavo-convex articular surface for articulation with the anterior surface of the calcaneus.

Joints and Articulations

  1. With the calcaneus: The cuboid articulates with the calcaneus posteriorly, forming a synovial joint known as the calcaneocuboid joint.
  2. With the lateral cuneiform: The osseous forms another synovial joint by integrating with the lateral cuneiform medially, forming the cuneocuboid joint.
  3. With the fourth and fifth metatarsal: The cuboid osseous articulates with the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones anteromedially and anterolaterally, respectively. These are also a form of synovial joints, known as tarsometatarsal joints.
  4. With navicular: The osseous also articulates with its medial neighbor, the navicular, forming the cuboideonavicular joint.

Muscle Attachments

The tibialis posterior is the sole muscle to attach to the cuboid osseous. The osseous also provides a groove for the peroneus longus muscle tendon to run through. The tendon passes through the groove and gets inserted in the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform bones.

Several ligaments, including the calcaneocuboid, cuboideo-navicular, cuboideo-metatarsal, and long plantar ligaments hold the cuboid osseous steadily in the middle of the lateral column of the foot.


    1. Cuboid osseous –
    2. Cuboid –
    3. Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Foot Cuboid Bone –
    4. Bones of the Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges –
    5. Cuboid osseous –
Rate article
Add a comment